Unlike most IDEs, MATLAB does not show the function call stack in a separate window.
To view the call stack, go to the Editor tab (at the top) and look for the Function Call Stack dropdown. It shows the names of the functions, but no line numbers. But choosing a call from the dropdown goes to the relevant line in the Editor window directly.
To view the call stack in the Command Window, use the command
dbstack. This shows the stack with line numbers. The function call can be clicked to view the line in the Editor window.
Tried with: MATLAB R2014a and Ubuntu 14.04