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Max, min and lowest in C++

📅 2015-Jul-02 ⬩ ✍️ Ashwin Nanjappa ⬩ 🏷️ cpp, limits, lowest, max, min, numeric_limits ⬩ 📚 Archive

The limits header provides template methods to obtain the maximum, minimum and lowest values of any numeric type in C++. The names of these methods and a slight distinction in these methods between integral types and floating point types causes a bit of confusion.

#include <limits>

std::numeric_limits<int>::max()    // INT_MAX
std::numeric_limits<int>::min()    // INT_MIN
std::numeric_limits<int>::lowest() // INT_MIN

std::numeric_limits<float>::max()    // FLT_MAX
std::numeric_limits<float>::min()    // FLT_MIN
std::numeric_limits<float>::lowest() // -FLT_MAX

std::numeric_limits<double>::max()    // DBL_MAX
std::numeric_limits<double>::min()    // DBL_MIN
std::numeric_limits<double>::lowest() // -DBL_MAX

For integral types, max is the largest integral value and min is the least representable integral value for that type. That is, all the integral values range from min to max. lowest is the same value as min for integral types.

For floating point types, max is the largest value that can be represented. That is, no other floating point value lies to the right of this value on the number line. lowest is the least value, no other value lies to the left of this value on the number line. Thus, all the floating point values range from lowest to max.

min is where floating point types differ from integral types. For floating point types, min is the tiniest positive value that can be represented. If min of integral values had been defined similar to floating point types, then that value would have been 1.

I maintain this table for easy lookup of these values:

2147483647    // int max
-2147483648   // int min
-2147483648   // int lowest

3.40282e+38   // float max
1.17549e-38   // float min
-3.40282e+38  // float lowest

1.79769e+308  // double max
2.22507e-308  // double min
-1.79769e+308 // double lowest

Tried with: GCC 4.9.2 and Ubuntu 14.04

© 2022 Ashwin Nanjappa • All writing under CC BY-SA license • 🐘📧