The Developer Options feature is available both in Android and Cyanogenmod. To enable it, go to Settings > About phone. If you are using a tablet, this is called About tablet. Find the Build Number section at the bottom and tap on it 7 times. Developer Options is now enabled and will appear in the Settings. If you are using Cyanogenmod, an additional Performance section appears in Settings. This has more intricate tweaks such as overclocking your CPU.
Tried with: Cyanogenmod 10.1 on Nook Color and Android 4.3 on Moto G