In Ubuntu, a list of all packages that are installed can be obtained using the dpkg program:
--get-selections option is needlessly verbose, there is no shorter version of it and it is hard to recall.
A better option is to use:
This lists other details of the package along with its name, like version, architecture and description. But hey, the option is easier to recall 🙂
Tried with: Dpkg 1.17.5 and Ubuntu 14.04